Palazzo Pamphilj is one of the most important buildings on Piazza Navona, overlooking the Moor Fountain by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Built between 1644 and 1650 by the architect Girolamo Rainaldi, it was the family palace of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, made Pope in the 1644 with the name of Innocenzo X Pamphilj.
Both the building façade and the inside Baroque decorations (with the imposing Borromini Gallery) reflect the Pamphilj’s prestige. The building is connected to the dome of the Church of Saint Agnes built by Borromini so that the cardinal and his family could attend to the Mass in private.
After becoming Pope, the building became the residence of the Innocent’s unpopular sister-in-law Olimpia Maidalchini, better known as La Pimpaccia di Piazza Navona and reputed to be the pope mistress. Later, when the Pamphilj family joined the Doria one, they moved to Palazzo Doria Pamphilj in via del Corso in Rome. Since 1920 Palazzo Pamphilj has housed the Brazilian Embassy in Italy, who bought it in 1961.